This 6-part series of 90-minute virtual seminars focus on material and fatigue performance for structural durability – from material coupon testing to full structure testing. The series begins with aerospace and automotive examples for physical structural and vibration tests, and how these can be complemented and enhanced using virtual sensors and structural simulations. These are followed by presentations on coupon and element mechanical testing, for material hardening parameters, baseline material and surface treatment enhancement and degradation, and for characterization of joints. The series concludes by showing how results from these durability tests and simulations become inputs to wider product reliability requirements. Application examples presented include full-scale aircraft structural tests, automotive electric vehicle battery and battery cooler tests and reliability.
Previous years’ Technology Days have focused fatigue testing, characterisation and simulation of traditional and additive manufactured material, surface treatments and joints & welds (hosted in 2021) and on the performance, durability or reliability requirements of a specific industry or application (hosted in 2022). Both the presentation recordings and downloadable content is available to access below.
Fatigue testing full scale airframe and large structural components require significant investment and resources for long durations. To reduce this duration, AIRBUS will describe the “Rapid EF” industry and university collaborative research programme. The Rapid EF objective is to shorten multi-year duration fatigue tests, to reduce overall aircraft development cycle time from a minimum of 8 years to less than 5 years. This is followed by the HBK contributions to Rapid EF, to reduce measurement setup time and reduce downtime in the DAQ measurement chain.
The session closes with University of Sheffield research to construct a structural dynamics digital twin of a Hawk T1A aircraft, to identify the outstanding questions and challenges to direct future efforts by academia and industry.
The qualification of many products, components and systems require shock and vibration testing to demonstrate their ability to meet performance requirements. National and International Standards define shock and vibration tests for many industries requiring a wide range of vibration test procedures. An electrodynamic shaker is at the centre of many vibration test systems. HBK will introduce vibration test systems and electrodynamic shakers, and then describe in more detail the high shock and high force shakers required to test EV (electric vehicle) battery packs and EV assemblies. AVL will extend this EV battery vibration testing application to a holistic test environment with all required subsystems integrated into a working vibration test system.
The session closes with HBK describing the complementarity of numerical simulation and physical testing and using fatigue equivalent methods to compare and tailor vibration tests, to decrease or increase test duration.
Across all industries, it is becoming increasingly necessary to qualify components based on their reliability and risk of failure. Modern testing methods can improve fatigue prediction of engineered structures with new joining techniques, surface treatments, additively manufactured materials, and composites. The transportation industry is increasingly using novel hybrid joints in their desire for durable lightweight structures to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. The introduction of REACH regulations in Europe for protection of human health and the environment from the use of chemicals has led to the development of new surface treatment systems.
This introduces how materials strength and fatigue performance parameters can be determined and used to reduce the variability and uncertainty of fatigue life predictions. This session describes these materials testing and characterisation methods and introduces the following more detailed HBK Technology Day sessions for surface treatments, hybrid joints and use of failure mode and effect analysis to improve durability and reliability.
Many structural components have surface treatments or coatings applied to the surface of the material to help protect against environmental or in service damage. Although these coatings are themselves not structural, it is important to understand the effect of these surface treatments on the fatigue life of a material. Select Engineering Services and HBK have worked together to provide the United States Air Force with more precise predictive models for the fatigue characteristics of landing gear subject to surface treatments and coatings during design, maintenance, and overhaul. This required conducting an extensive surface treatment fatigue testing programme for 300M steel, 4340 steel and 7075 aluminium, with a wide range of surface treatments and developing a Material Assessment and Predictive Analysis (MAPA) tool to manage these. The background and requirements of this work are presented in the 2021 HBK Technology Days. This session describes the results, including the novel combination of strain-life fatigue with surface treatment factors, the MAPA tool and the inclusion of fatigue properties for these baseline materials and their surface treatments in the nCode Premium Materials Database.
The use of adhesive and/or hybrid joints are increasingly popular in the transportation industry to achieve their desire for durable lightweight structures to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. To optimise the design of these joints and minimise the risk of in-service fatigue failures, requires robust and easy-to-use methods for their modelling and fatigue life estimation. This session describes how the methods developed for thin sheet welded joints, presented at the 2021 HBK Technology Days, have been extended to adhesive and/or hybrid joint. These methods include using cameras to monitor crack initiation and propagation and displacement transducers for calculating stiffness drops. These tests, coupled with finite element stress analysis to recover the needed stress, enables the transformation of high quality load-life data sets with low scatter into stress-life (SN) fatigue parameters.
The session closes with an introduction to fretting fatigue, and University of Brasilia and University of Leuven research for a new combined experimental and numerical approach to characterise and predict fretting fatigue damage accumulation under variable amplitude loading.
Reliability engineering uses the discipline and hierarchy of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to identify and rank potential and actual failure modes from components to systems to full asset. During development and in-service operation, test and field data for failure and survival can populate a hierarchal FMEA with quantifiable failure distributions. Early in concept design failure modes can be ranked, and plans proposed for supplementary development testing where reliability requirements are high but confidence is low because minimal data are available. During in-service operation, analyses of warranty field data can give early identification of future unreliability enabling mitigating actions to be developed and deployed.
Valeo present their application of reliability methods and tools deployed to ensure reliability of their thermal systems for new automotive electrification challenges. Valeo have collaborated with University of Bradford research to develop a model-based system engineering (MBSE) approach to automate some FMEA generation, to alleviate the traditional time and resource intensive expert-centric FMEA approach. The session closes with HBK presenting how to prioritise the tests required to mitigate reliability risk exposure by prioritising supplementary development testing.
Marco Wagner, Measurement and Control System Engineer, Airbus
Marco Wagner has a background in electrical engineering with a specialization in communications engineering. He began his career as a software developer at Harman/Becker, focusing on digital signal processing and I/O controller programming. In 2009, he joined Airbus Defense and Space, where he worked on the development of test and simulation systems for avionics and weapon systems.
During this time, Marco was responsible for the FPGA development and introduced several new FPGA technologies. In addition, he worked on the development of real-time software and established Embedded Linux as the standard operating system for real-time data processing in the test system.
In 2022, Mr. Wagner made a career move to Airbus Commercial.
In his current role, he is responsible for the measurement and control systems at the Structural Test in Hamburg. His main focus is on modeling and simulating test setups as well as post-processing measurement data for continuous structural health monitoring (SHM).
Sandro Di Natale, Product and Application Manager - Test and Measurement, HBK
After completing his master’s degree in physics at the University of Heidelberg and a brief experience in Consulting Sandro joined HBK as Product Manager in 2014. Since then, he has been responsible for data acquisition products (hardware and software) focusing on large-scale structural testing and high precision. One main focus of his work is finding solutions with customers to make data acquisition of hundreds or even thousands of sensors more reliable and more efficient.
Dr. Timothy Rogers, Senior Lecturer in Dynamics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield
Dr Timothy Rogers is a senior lecturer in the Dynamics Research Group (DRG), part of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at The University of Sheffield. He has completed both his MEng in Mechanical Engineering and his PhD at Sheffield, the title of which was "Towards Bayesian System Identification: With Application to SHM of Offshore Structures". His work focuses on application of Machine Learning and Bayesian statistical methods to problems in structural dynamics, in particular those within nonlinear system identification and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). His current research interests include: machine learning for structural dynamics and Structural Health Monitoring; Bayesian statistical modelling of structural systems; probabilistic nonlinear system identification; joint input/state/parameter identification.
Tim Gardiner, Product Manager - Vibration Test Systems, HBK
Tim Gardiner joined Hottinger Brüel & Kjær in 2021. Tim has nearly 20 years of experience in product management and commercial leadership both in the UK and Europe with a background in test and measurement. Tim has responsibility for all VTS products that serve in the aerospace, automotive and defence industries, He has a business degree from the Solent University in the UK.
Armin Karner, Senior Application Manager, AVL List GmbH
Armin Karner has graduated in the fields of Information Technology & Electrical Engineering. He joined AVL almost ten years ago and switched to electrified test systems in 2016. Since 2019, he has been working as Senior Application Manager for Battery and Electrified Test Systems in the Application Team Electrification. As an example, he is part of a standards working group to define test procedures for determining charging performance to provide reliable labelling in an understandable and reproducible way for end users. With his experience in these areas, Armin brings extensive technical and solution-oriented experience, especially in the field of battery environmental testing with electrodynamic shakers.
Dr. Frédéric Kihm, Product Manager – Analytics and Signal Processing, HBK
Frédéric Kihm is Product Manager at HBK, responsible for the signal processing related software products, which includes GlyphWorks, VibeSys and nCodeDS. Frédéric previously worked as an Engineering Consultant for nCode and then HBM, involved with signal processing, durability and vibration analyses in the automotive, aerospace, and defence industries. Frédéric holds a MS in Mechanical Engineering from IFMA University in France and a PhD from the Institute of Sound & Vibration Research (ISVR) in Southampton, UK.
Dr. Andrew Halfpenny, Director of Technology – nCode Products, HBK
Dr. Halfpenny has a PhD in Mechanical Engineering from University College London (UCL) and a Master’s in Civil and Structural Engineering. With over 25 years of experience in structural dynamics, vibration, fatigue and fracture, he has introduced many new technologies to the industry including: FE-based vibration fatigue analysis, crack growth simulation and accelerated vibration testing. He holds a European patent for the ‘Damage monitoring tag’ and developed the new vibration standard used for qualifying UK military helicopters.
He has worked in consultancy with customers across the UK, Europe, Americas and the Far East, and has written publications on Fatigue, Digital Signal Processing and Structural Health Monitoring. He sits on the NAFEMS committee for Dynamic Testing and is a guest lecturer on structural dynamics with The University of Sheffield.
Dr. Michelle Hill, Head of Materials Testing, HBK
Michelle holds a Master’s degree in Aeronautical Engineering and a PhD studying the damage resistance and tolerance of composite sandwich structures, obtained from Loughborough University. She joined HBK in May 2017, having previously held the position of Chief of Materials at the Rolls-Royce CTAL facility on the Isle of Wight. Her speciality is in composite materials characterisation and testing, with hands-on experience in defining and executing large material qualification programmes.
Having spent 10 years on the Rolls-Royce composite fan system programme, leading the Materials team, Michelle has experience of how to relate materials testing to real applications and how to characterize difficult structures such as hybrid joints. At HBK she is responsible for the AMCT facility and the management of the commercial testing activities along with research into the fatigue behaviour of additively manufactured materials and composites.
Mr. Ben Griffiths, Chief Engineer, Select Engineering Services
Ben Griffiths has a Master's degree in Mechanical Engineering from Utah State University and is a licensed Professional Engineer in the state of Utah. He has 10 years of experience conducting research and development with an emphasis on materials testing and analysis. Some of the research projects he has worked on include:
Mr. Griffiths is representing Select Engineering Services (SES) which is an employee-owned small business operating out of the state of Utah. SES primarily focuses on engineering and analytical services for the United States Air Force (USAF) and other DoD agencies.
Paul Roberts, Product Manager – nCode DesignLife, HBK
Paul Roberts has been involved with fatigue and durability analysis for the over 40 years. He has been with HBK (formally nCode) for a total of 17 years as an application engineer and product manager for the DesignLife product. Prior to joining nCode, Paul held positions in product development, testing, RLD analysis and FE based engineering consultancy at GKN Technology and Ricardo. Paul graduated with a degree in mechanical engineering from Aston University in Birmingham, UK.
Alex Pierpoint, Materials Test Engineer, HBK
Mr Alex Pierpoint joined HBK in September 2018 as an apprentice materials test engineer. He studied to gain a Bachelor’s Degree in Maintenance Engineering from the University of Sheffield whilst simultaneously working at HBK’s Advanced Materials Characterisation and Testing (AMCT) facility. Alex’s degree dissertation focussed on creating a methodology for the fatigue testing of welded joints to develop and standardise the testing process. This work enabled the AMCT to adopt a standardised process for testing welded joints. He has since adapted this methodology from welded joints to fatigue testing a broader range of joining methods including adhesive and hybrid joints.
Alex is continuing his career development with a part time and remote Master’s Degree in Advanced Mechanical Engineering at the University of Strathclyde, to be completed over the next three years whilst continuing his testing work in the AMCT at HBK.
Dr. Cristian Bagni, Technologist of Fatigue and Fracture, HBK
Dr. Cristian Bagni holds a Master’s Degree in Civil and Structural Engineering (Unversità degli Studi di Parma, Italy) and a PhD in Structural Engineering (The University of Sheffield) developing a new Finite Element methodology to assess the static and fatigue behaviour of notched and cracked components.
He has co-authored papers on Computational Mechanics and Fatigue, and he has reviewed papers for International Journals including ‘Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures’ (FFEMS), and ‘Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics’.
After working for several years at the University of Sheffield’s Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) on high profile aerospace research projects, he also gained extensive experience on advanced manufacturing processes.
Cristian joined HBK in July 2020 as Technologist for Fatigue and Fracture, and amongst his activities he leads research on the fatigue behaviour of joints. He also supports the Advanced Materials Characterisation & Testing (AMCT) facility with the analysis and post-processing of fatigue test results, and consequent characterisation of both joints and parent materials.
Ph.D. André Luis Pinto, University of Brasilia
Professor at the Federal Institute of Brasília (IFB) and researcher at the University of Brasília (UnB). Ph.D. in Mechanical Sciences from the University of Brasília (UnB) and a Ph.D. in Engineering Technology from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven).
In recent years, he has been working on research into Multiaxial Fatigue and Fretting Fatigue. He completed his master's degree in Mechanical Sciences at UnB (2018) and a degree in Mechanical Engineering at Universidade Evangélica de Goiás-UniEvangélica (2015). He has experience in Mining and Sugar and Alcohol Plants in the Engineering, Maintenance, and Project sectors. During his academic period, he developed research aimed at teaching Mechanical Engineering in Brazil, and Fracture Mechanics.
Dr. Marco Bonato, Head of Reliability and Data Analytics Expert, Valeo Thermal Systems
Marco Bonato is Reliability Manager and Reliability Senior Expert, in Valeo since 2012. His responsibility includes the management and expertise development of the three branches of reliability engineering: operational, experimental and predictive. Marco holds a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from the University of Bristol (UK). Prior to this, he obtained a Master degree in Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Padua (Italy).
Chris Wynn-Jones, Application Engineer – Reliability, HBK
Christopher Wynn-Jones has a BEng (Hons) in Mechanical Engineering from University of Wolverhampton coupled with 25 years of engineering experience. After various manufacturing roles Chris went on to become a Safety and Reliability Engineer for civil and military products in the air, at sea and ground vehicles. He is an Application Engineer for ReliaSoft reliability software, supporting customers in industry and in universities with software solutions and best practices in Engineering for Reliability.
Chris also sits on the WG1 committee of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers [IMechE] Safety and Reliability Group (SRG). The SRG group promotes the development of safety and reliability requirements for products such as equipment, systems or services.
Prof. Felician Campean, University of Bradford
Felician is a Professor in Reliability Engineering, Director of the Automotive Research Centre at the University of Bradford, and Associate Dean for Research & Innovation in the Faculty of Engineering and Digital Technologies. He holds a PhD in Reliability from Brunel University (1998) and a Mechanical / Manufacturing Engineering Degree from Transilvania University (1990).
His research interests revolve around the development of methods and tools to support design for performance, reliability and robustness in the product development of automotive and aerospace complex systems. This includes model-based methods for systems engineering, reliability, robustness and resilience analysis, AI big data analytics methods for intelligent systems lifecycle management, multi-disciplinary design optimization, modelling complex manufacturing and product development processes. He has an extensive track record of working with industry on collaborative research – both fundamental and applied, as well as effective knowledge transfer, with strong evidence of impact to industry.