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2022 HBK Technology Days

illustration of a car, train, wind power, and oil platform for HBK Technology Days 2022

Virtual Seminar Series

This 6-part series of 90-minute virtual seminars focus on the performance, durability or reliability requirements of a specific industry or application. The six sessions showcased applications of measurement, monitoring and modelling for electrical, acoustical and structural performance from batteries to bridges to aircraft landing gear and electric vehicles. The presented applications will help you to overcome challenges in sensors for measurement accuracy and precision, and subsequent data analysis, analytics and reliability modelling.


Fill out the form to download the PDFs in "Access 2022 Archive".

Interested in learning more?

Previous years’ Technology Days have focussed on durability, reliability and associated data analytics of in-field, proving ground and laboratory vehicle testing (hosted in 2020) and fatigue testing, characterisation and simulation of traditional and additive manufactured material, surface treatments and joints & welds (hosted in 2021). Both the presentation recordings and downloadable content is available to access below.

HBK Technology Days includes presenters from:

  • Cranfield University
  • HBK Electrification
  • HBK FiberSensing
  • HBK Force Transducers
  • HBK nCode and ReliaSoft
  • Jaguar Land Rover
  • Politecnico di Milano
  • Queen’s University Belfast
  • University of Sheffield

Tuesday November 8 - Electric Vehicle Battery Modelling and Powertrain Testing

Explode view of electric vehicle chassis equipped with battery pack on the road. 3D rendering image from HBK

Session 1: Electric Vehicle Battery Characterisation, Modelling and Simulation



Understanding and characterising battery performance is critical for electric vehicle development. This learning is established from multiple sources including laboratory testing, real-world vehicle fleets, physics and chemistry simulation models, and statistical and machine learning models.


These presentations describe predictive battery analytics, characterisation of lithium-ion cells and measuring battery capacity fading using force transducers.

Closing the loop with hybrid simulation models for battery electric vehicles

Dr. Matthias Simolka, Technical Solution Engineering, TWAICE

The change to electromobility continues to pick up speed, ensuring that one component is at the center of attention: the battery. It is both the enabler and Achilles heel of the transition from ICE to EV. Batteries are used in various applications with significantly different requirements and many diverse environmental conditions. Predicting the behavior of batteries with different cell chemistries and formats when impacted by these parameters is challenging. Hence, different individual approaches for battery simulations exist. Combining some of these individual approaches can have a strong impact on the overall model performance.

TWAICE enables the automotive industry to step up its battery game – generate more value with batteries by simulating before start of production and by enhancing after-sales services with our predictive battery analytics. We will shed some light on the benefits of semi-empirical and machine learning models as well as their combination – we call this a hybrid model.


Capture lithium-ion battery cell key characteristics by cell testing & validation

Dr. Patrick (Peng) Xiao, Lead Engineer – Battery Cell Chemistry, Jaguar Land Rover

As the evolution of the cell is moving fast forward with advanced chemistry, formats, capturing the key characteristics of the cell’s performance becomes critical to cell integration into the Pack. Those key characteristics include cell’s fundamental performance such as capacity, DCIR, cycle life & storage life as well thermal properties, safeties under extreme use conditions or abuse conditions.

A suite of characterization is introduced how Jaguar Land Rover cell team are capturing those key characteristics as the cell testing & validation methods. Those key characteristics are providing a full spectrum of the information of cells’ interfaces in the Pack.

Measuring capacity fading due to charge/discharge cycles using force transducers

Mr. Thomas Kleckers, Product and Application Manager - Force Transducers, HBK 

Electric cars play an important role in the decarbonization strategy of many countries. The technology has been improved in the last years, but besides the range of the car, the time required to charge an electric vehicle is also important as shorter charge stops would make them much more attractive to a wider audience. 

A shorter time with the same capacity entails operating with higher currents. Current, temperature and number of cycles are the most important factors that influence capacity fading, meaning the decrease of the capacity of a lithium-ion battery. 

Traditionally, battery tests are performed by measuring voltage and current. A more innovative method is to measure the force of a lithium-ion pack while charging or discharging processes in a fixed position. Using a suitable load cell, the test can be performed at various temperatures, and long-term tests are possible as well.

The requirements the force transducer must meet are given by the nature of the testing procedure: The long duration requires a low drift, and possible harsh environments make a hermetically sealed load cell necessary. Recent load cells are extremely accurate sensors, but as with every measurement, a certain measurement uncertainty occurs with a battery test as well. 

This lecture will discuss the most important technical aspects for choosing a suitable load cell for a “punch cell test”, and you will also learn how to do an easy calculation to get a good estimation of the measurement uncertainty.

Electric SUV (generic design) with battery packs composited in transparent mode. 3D rendering image from HBK

Session 2: Electric Vehicle Powertrain Testing, Measurement and Analysis



Testing electrical machines and electrical powertrains is a key task in developing the electric future of industry and transportation. To increase efficiency, acoustic quality, durability and reliability of next-generation electrical machines and drives, used in cars, other land vehicles, air vehicles and marine vehicles, requires testing with accuracy and precision, and analysis capability to characterise their steady state and dynamic operational conditions.


These presentations describe using electrical characteristics to identify motor degradation and failure, acoustic quality at end-of-line testing, efficiency characterisation by instantaneous power calculations.


Understanding motor degradation and failure modes using electrical characteristics

Mr. Mitch Marks, Business Development Manager - EPT, Electrification, HBK 

Electric motors and powertrains present new challenges for durability testing and understanding the physics of failure. Traditional acceleration methods of running at an increased temperature are often not possible because the motor and inverter cannot survive them.

Motors also introduce new failure modes like demagnetization, delamination, and turn-to-turn shorts amongst others. These failures will result in mechanical failure modes but can be more easily monitored and understood through electrical measurements.

This session will discuss the failure modes of electric motors, the benefits of measuring electrical values for durability testing and give real data from durability testing.

Acoustic quality assurance in industrial production end-of-line

Dr. Holger Behme-Jahns, Head of Project Engineering and Acoustics, Discom GmbH

Acoustical quality has become an increasingly important topic over the last few years. Customers expect technology to be not only reliable but also sustainable, well-designed and quiet. Especially in the automotive industry, the change toward electric mobility shifted customer expectations from roaring engine power sound to silent gliding. This leads to ever-increasing requirements for acoustic quality testing in production, not only in R&D.

A well-designed acoustic analysis for end-of-line testing can do much more than simply find “loud” units. By using constructive information about the device under test, irregular noises can be attributed to specific parts and root causes, enabling efficient repair. Combining results from actual drive tests in cars with limits derived from production statistics, it is possible to identify units which would lead to customer complaints and as well units which have hidden production defects. Long-term statistical analysis of production data expands the scope from the single device under test towards the whole production process with trends and hidden correlations.

This presentation will show the current state of end-of-line acoustic production testing with a focus on automotive powertrain applications and on the Discom production test system.

Instantaneous power calculations; active, reactive and apparent power, power factor and efficiency implications

Dr. Andrew Halfpenny, Director of Technology, HBK nCode Products

  • Do you struggle explaining the difference between ‘active’, ‘reactive’ and ‘apparent’ power, in a way that colleagues can understand?
  • Do they keep asking you why ‘phase-related reactive power’ should be separate from ‘frequency-related reactive power’?
  • Does your line manager understand why dynamic power analysis and optimisation of variable speed electrical machines used in EVs, is so much more complicated than constant speed machines used in a factory?
  • Would you like a nice story with pictures to replace pages of differential calculus?

If you are an Automotive or Mechanical Engineer who wants a conceptual understanding of dynamic AC power analysis, or an electrical engineer who wants a non-mathematical refresher, then this presentation is for you!




Tuesday November 15 - Structural Health Monitoring - Bridges, Sensors and Analytics

engineers working in the structural health monitoring of a bridge

Session 3: Structural Health Monitoring - Bridges and Sensors



Civil infrastructure (bridges, tunnels, railways, pipelines, energy plant, process plant) are subject to operational environments and conditions that cause structural degradation through time, normal use, extreme use, accident, and potential natural disaster. Structural health monitoring (SHM) is the ability to measure and observe the response of a structure to enable early identification of deterioration through response changes.


These presentations show the value of information from SHM for emergency management, bridge inspection requirements, research for bridges as a population of structures, and optical sensor technology used in measurements for SHM systems for bridges and civil infrastructure.

grey rail in a curved track, with wheels and overhead line infrastructure outlined

Session 4: Structural Health Monitoring - Data Analytics



The value of structural health monitoring (SHM) is realised through analysis of structural response measurements. Such analyses can include structural characterisation, identification of trends and divergence from trends, calculation of cumulative usage indicators, predictive estimation of remaining structural life and more. These data analytics quantify the overall structural condition to inform decision making for continual safe operation, predictive maintenance planning, and replacement planning


Successful and efficient implementation of SHM data analytics requires many steps from measurement data acquisition, validation & cleaning, database ingress, calculating operational parameters from physical and statistical models, investigative and retrospective analysis, visualisation and reporting.

These presentations show applications of such models with machine learning for SHM of bridges and civil infrastructure, certification of machine learning for remaining useful life of aircraft landing gear, and SHM of railway infrastructure and rail vehicles.

Uncertainties and risk management for certification of machine learning & landing gear remaining useful life assessment

Haroun El Mir, PhD Researcher, Transport Systems, Cranfield University

Landing gear systems on Aircraft undergo a multitude of forces during their life cycle, leading to the eventual replacement of this system based on a ‘safe life’ approach that certain circumstances underestimate the component’s remaining useful life.

The efficacy of fatigue life approximation methodologies is studied and compared to the ongoing Structural Health Monitoring techniques being researched, which will forecast failures based on the system’s specific life and withstanding abilities, ranging from creating a digital twin to applying neural network technologies, in order to simulate and approximate locations and levels of failure along the structure.

Explainable Artificial Intelligence (AI) allows for the ease of integration of Deep Neural Network (DNN) data into predictive maintenance, which is a procedure focused on the health of a system and its efficient upkeep via the use of sensor-based data.

Test data from a flight includes a multitude of conditions and varying parameters such as the surface of the landing strip as well as the aircraft itself, requiring the use of DNN models for damage assessment and failure anticipation, where compliance to standards is a major question raised, as the EASA AI roadmap is followed, as well as the ICAO and FAA.

This presentation additionally discusses the challenges faced with respect to standardizing the explainable AI methodologies and their parameters specifically for the case of landing gear.

Tuesday November 22 - Reliability of Electric Systems and Fault Tree Analysis

generic electric car with battery visible x-ray charging at a public charger in city parking lot with lens flare 3d render. Reliability of Electric Systems, session 5 from day 3 of the 2022 HBK Technology Days.

Session 5: Reliability of Electric Systems



The increasing electrification of transport systems presents many challenges to achieving the desired reliability of these electric vehicles and their electric power systems, to mitigate both a safety risk and warranty exposure. They require convergence and conversion between mechanical power and electrical power. Some failure modes and reliability models carry over from predominantly mechanical powered vehicles, whilst new failure modes are created, requiring identification and quantification through testing, simulation and validation.


These presentations show building a reliability validation plan for the automotive electric powertrain, statistical and reliability methods for determining electric vehicle system reliability, and why aviation needs more reliable and standardised electrical testing for the shift to more-electric aircraft. 

Reliability fault tree analysis from a desktop perspective

Session 6: Reliability Fault Tree Analysis



Fault tree analysis is one of many symbolic analytical logic techniques found in operations research, system reliability analysis, risk analysis and other disciplines. A fault tree diagram follows a top-down structure and represents a graphical model of the pathways within a system that can lead to a foreseeable, undesirable loss event (or a failure). The pathways interconnect contributory events and conditions using standard logic gates (AND, OR, etc). Analysts may wish to use fault trees in combination with reliability block diagrams for system analysis. Fault trees may also be useful for analysing the effects of individual failure modes and in conjunction with FMEA.


These presentations introduce fault tree analysis to identify the critical path, and their use in combination with reliability block diagrams to understand and improve a system, followed by their application to tens of thousands of assets for advanced reliability analysis and reliability digital twins.

Meet the Speakers

portrait of Matthias Simolka, Technical Solution Engineering at TWAICE

Dr. Matthias Simolka

Technical Solution Engineering, TWAICE


Dr. Matthias Simolka is Technical Solution Engineering at TWAICE. In this capacity, Matthias bridges the gap between Sales, Product and Tech, working with all teams to ensure maximum value and the optimal solution is delivered to battery customers. TWAICE supports enterprises across industries with predictive battery analytics software based on digital twins.


Prior to joining TWAICE, Matthias was working several years in academic research focusing on the aging mechanisms of modern Li-ion batteries. His research combined material analysis down to the nanometer scale with system level observations to link the battery behavior to actual degradation mechanisms. After the academic research, Matthias worked for a few years as a Consultant focusing on the German energy market with special attention to renewable energies and energy storage technologies and their applications.

portrait of Patrick (Peng) Xiao, lead engineer and battery cell chemistry from Jaguar Land Rover

Dr. Patrick (Peng) Xiao

Lead Engineer – Battery Cell Chemistry, Jaguar Land Rover 


Dr. Peng Xiao, also known as Patrick Xiao in Jaguar Land Rover. Patrick Xiao works in Jaguar Land Rover as a Battery Cell Technology & Design Technical Specialist in Advanced Cell Engineering team in 2017. He looks at that cell’s interfaces within the Pack for cell integration, DFMEA, cell testing & validation, cell safety, and cell ageing. He also had the experience of Pack attributes, cooling system design, BMS control in an excursion working experience in McLaren.


Patrick Xiao has a Ph.D. in chemical in Nanyang Technological University, specializing in electrochemistry.  He also worked in CATL for cell design and prototype cell manufacturing of HEV and BEV cells before he joined Jaguar Land Rover.

portrait of Thomas Kleckers, product manager for force sensors at HBK

Thomas Kleckers

Product and Application Manager - Force Sensors and Transducers, HBK


Thomas Kleckers studied at the university for applied science in Duisburg and holds a diploma in physical engineering. He started working for HBM in 1992 as a development engineer for strain gauges with a focus on experimental stress analysis. Since 2009 Thomas has been the responsible Product Manager for force sensors at HBK.  With more than 25 years of experience in the field of measurement of mechanical quantities, Thomas brings much experience with the application of strain gauges and strain gauge-based sensors.  He has published several articles about transfer standards for force in the IMEKO organization and worked actively on the standard for characterization of strain gauges. 

portrait of Mitch Marks, business development manager of the Electric Power Testing at HBK

Mitch Marks

Business Development Manager - EPT, Electrification, HBK


Mitch has worked in electric motor developing and testing his entire career and specializes in test and measurement traction motors and drives. He has been with HBK since 2017 as a member of the electric power testing team. He has an undergraduate and a master’s degree in electrical engineering from the University of Wisconsin – Madison WEMPEC program.

silhouette of a man in a portrait

Dr. Holger Behme-Jahns

Head of Project Engineering and Acoustics, Discom GmbH


Dr. Behme-Jahns has a PhD in Physics, graduating from Göttingen University. He joined Discom in 1995 as first employee to founder, Dr. Thomas Lewien, and has worked as technology and software developer, consultant, sales and many other roles during the growth of Discom. He currently heads the Project Engineering team at Discom which adapts our solution to customer needs, develops new approaches and supports our customers with training and consultancy.

portrait of Andrew Halpenny, director of Technology of nCode products from HBK

Dr. Andrew Halfpenny

Director of Technology, HBK nCode Products


Dr. Halfpenny has a PhD in Mechanical Engineering from University College London (UCL) and a Masters’ in Civil and Structural Engineering. With over 25 years of experience in structural dynamics, vibration, fatigue and fracture, he has introduced many new technologies to the industry including: FE-based vibration fatigue analysis, crack growth simulation and accelerated vibration testing. He holds a European patent for the ‘Damage monitoring tag’ and developed the new vibration standard used for qualifying UK military helicopters. He has worked in consultancy with customers across the UK, Europe, Americas and the Far East, and has written publications on Fatigue, Digital Signal Processing and Structural Health Monitoring. He sits on the NAFEMS committee for Dynamic Testing and is a guest lecturer on structural dynamics with The University of Sheffield.

portrait of Maria Pina Limongelli, associate professor in the Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering at Politecnico di Milano

Prof. Maria Pina Limongelli

Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering, Politecnico di Milano


Prof. Maria Pina Limongelli is Associate professor of Structural and seismic engineering at Politecnico di Milano and Guest Professor of Digital Structural Health Monitoring and Integrity Management at Lund University in Sweden. She holds a M.S. (1991) in Structural Engineering and a Ph.D. (1995) in Seismic Engineering. Her primary research interests are related to Value of SHM information analysis, Vibration-based monitoring, and SHM standardization. She is author of more than 200 scientific peer-reviewed papers and participates, with leading roles, in several national and international funded projects Structural Health Monitoring and performance assessment of roadway bridges. She coordinates activities in several committees, and associations such as ISHMII, fib, IABSE, and JCSS.

silhouette of a man in a portrait

Dr. David Hester

Senior Lecturer in Structural Engineering, School of Natural and Built Environment, Queen’s University Belfast 


After completing my undergrad I worked for 8 years as a bridge designer/inspector. This prompted my interest in bridge Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and I completed my PhD on the topic in University College Dublin. Since joining QUB my research interest has been on practical ways of collecting bridge data and how to exploit this data for decision making. In particular, through a collaboration with Electrical and Electronic Engineers, I am working on innovative autonomous bridge monitoring functionality. I have published extensively in the area (34 journal and 38 conference papers) with 1,035 citations and an H-index of 19. I have been PI or Co-I on grants worth over £2 million to the University.

portrait of Cristina Barbosa, product manager of optical business at HBK FiberSensing

Cristina Barbosa

Product Manager Optical Business, HBK FiberSensing


Cristina Barbosa is the Product Manager for HBK Optical Business since 2015, but her work with Fiber Bragg Grating technology started more than 15 years ago, soon after graduating from the Faculty of Engineering of Porto University as a Civil Engineer. Since then, she has been working in FiberSensing, currently HBK FiberSensing, taking different responsibilities from application engineering to sales, with important support to marketing activities.

silhouette of a woman in a portrait

Prof. Elizabeth Cross

Dynamics Research Group, University of Sheffield


Lizzy Cross is Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and a Professor in the Dynamics Research Group at the University of Sheffield with a research focus on advanced data analysis and machine learning for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and nonlinear system identification. She has just completed an EPSRC Innovation Fellowship pioneering physics-informed machine learning for structural dynamics. Lizzy is a co-director of the Laboratory for Verification and Validation, a state-of-the-art dynamic testing facility ( She has published over 140 articles, including 45 journal papers, 6 invited book chapters. She was recently awarded the Achenbach medal which recognises an individual (within 10 years of PhD) who has made an outstanding contribution to the advancement of the field of SHM.

To be confirmed

portrait of Haroun El Mir, PhD Researcher, Transport Systems from Cranfield University

Haroun El Mir

PhD Researcher, Transport Systems, Cranfield University


Haroun completed his BSc in Mechanical Engineering at the American University of Sharjah, with a focus on Aircraft Stability & Propulsion. He worked right after as a research assistant in Composite Materials with a Publication on "Improving the buckling strength of honeycomb cores".  Moving thereon to Cranfield University for an MSc in Aerospace Vehicle Design with a concentration in Avionics Systems Design, he focused on Landing Gear fatigue prediction using modelling and FE software, later pursuing a PhD in Transport Systems, seeking the continuation of his MSc Thesis and integrating it with a neural network approach & application in SHM.

silhouette of a man in a portrait

Dietmar Maicz

Railway and Infrastructure Monitoring Expert, HBK


Studied industrial engineering and mechanical engineering, majoring in transport engineering and majoring in production engineering at Graz University of Technology.


Since 2003 working in the field of measurement technology for Asset Health Monitoring and Predictive Maintenance.


portrait of Andrew Brown, battery validation group leader for electric powertrain at Jaguar Land Rover

Andrew Brown

Reliability & Validation Methods Chapter Lead, Jaguar Land Rover


Andrew graduated from Sheffield University in 2006 with a degree in Aerospace Engineering. Since then, he has worked in product development of Internal Combustion Engines, starting his career working on large diesel gensets for Perkins Engines and then transferring to Automotive ICE engine development at JLR. Andrew began working in the field of Reliability and Validation Methodology for base engines back in 2016, before leading the validation team on the new Range Rover PHEV battery (the first in-house developed battery at JLR). More recently he has transferred to a lead role in the Validation Methods & Reliability Technical Chapter, responsible for developing common Reliability Engineering practices for the Electric Propulsion System.

silhouette of a man in a portrait

Dr. Suresh Perinpanayagam

Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Centre, Cranfield University


Dr Suresh Perinpanayagam leads the Prognostic Health Management Group, part of the Boeing Integrated Vehicle Health Management Research Centre set up by The Boeing Company. Suresh has a research group of 14 researchers and manages grants amounting to £1.6M from the industry. Suresh obtained his Master's in Engineering and PhD in Engineering at Imperial College, London. Suresh has spent considerable time in the industry working on various industrial R&D projects.

The PHM group links many of the UK’s high-value-added electronic system manufacturers, including Airbus, Boeing, Thales, BAE Systems, Meggitt, Safran, and Rolls Royce. Suresh has published over 90 peer-reviewed journal and conference papers. He has successfully completed the supervision of eighteen Master’s theses and one PhD thesis.

Suresh is a member of the working group developing the IEEE Standard for Prognostics and Health Management. He has published one book chapter on ‘Sensors, Instrumentation and Signal Processing’ in the SAE International book on Integrated Vehicle Health Management and numerous research papers.

portrait of Andrew Halpenny, director of Technology of nCode products from HBK

Dr. Andrew Halfpenny

Director of Technology, HBK nCode Products


Dr. Halfpenny has a PhD in Mechanical Engineering from University College London (UCL) and a Masters’ in Civil and Structural Engineering. With over 25 years of experience in structural dynamics, vibration, fatigue and fracture, he has introduced many new technologies to the industry including: FE-based vibration fatigue analysis, crack growth simulation and accelerated vibration testing. He holds a European patent for the ‘Damage monitoring tag’ and developed the new vibration standard used for qualifying UK military helicopters. He has worked in consultancy with customers across the UK, Europe, Americas and the Far East, and has written publications on Fatigue, Digital Signal Processing and Structural Health Monitoring. He sits on the NAFEMS committee for Dynamic Testing and is a guest lecturer on structural dynamics with The University of Sheffield.

silhouette of a man in a portrait

Mr. Chris Wynn-Jones

Application Engineer – Reliability, HBK


Christopher Wynn-Jones has a BEng (Hons) in Mechanical Engineering from University of Wolverhampton coupled with 25 years of engineering experience. After various manufacturing roles Chris went on to become a Safety and Reliability Engineer for civil and military products in the air, at sea and ground vehicles. He is an Application Engineer for ReliaSoft reliability software, supporting customers in industry and in universities with software solutions and best practices in Engineering for Reliability.


Chris also sits on the WG1 committee of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers [IMechE] Safety and Reliability Group (SRG). The SRG group promotes the development of safety and reliability requirements for products such as equipment, systems or services.

portrait of Sam Eisenberg, product manager for ReliaSoft products at HBK

Sam Eisenberg

Product Manager, HBK ReliaSoft Products


Sam Eisenberg is the Product Manager for ReliaSoft Products and the Product Owner for ReliaSoft Desktop Products. Sam has been working with ReliaSoft since 2010, beginning with Technical Support, moving into the Application Engineer role, and then taking on the Product Manager / Product Owner roles.

portrait of Adi Dhora, reliability solutions consultant and engineering solutions at HBK

Mr Adi Dhora

Engineering Solutions, Reliability Solutions Consultant, HBK 


As a Reliability Solutions Consultant, Adi Dhora specializes in implementing data-driven methodologies to improve the reliability of critical assets for various industries. He has a background in mechanical engineering and has assisted many leading industrial companies in implementing reliability programs. 

portrait of Eric Fritts, project engineer and engineering solutions at HBK

Mr Eric Fritts

Engineering Solutions, Project Engineer, HBK


Eric Fritts is a Project Engineer at HBK and regularly tackles industry problems with his know-how in reliability analysis, failure propagation and mitigation and the ancillary/logistical impacts of component failure. He has experience across private sector heavy industry and military. He has a background in Automation Engineering and Software Engineering.


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